Crime reduction toolkit

Find out what works in crime reduction.

The crime reduction toolkit summarises the best available research evidence on what works to reduce crime.

Use the crime reduction toolkit to see:

  • the impact of different interventions on crime
  • how and where interventions work
  • how to implement the interventions and their cost

The systematic reviews are interpreted, rated and presented using the EMMIE framework. 

Using the toolkit

All interventions are displayed in this table along with quality of evidence, impact on crime and effect using the EMMIE scale. Use the filters to compare interventions. Click on the specific intervention to find more detail including how and where it works, costs and how to implement it.

Filters
Effect
Focus
Problem
Population
Factor
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Intervention Effect on crime

Effect scale

Quality of evidence (Effect)
Updated Hot spots policing
Overall reduction

Very strong

New Accident and emergency navigators
Some reduction

Moderate

After-school programmes
Mixed findings

Very strong

Aggression replacement training (ART) for reducing antisocial behaviour
Mixed findings

Moderate

Alcohol pricing
Overall reduction

Strong

Alley gating
Overall reduction

Very strong

Alternative education programmes
Mixed findings

Strong

Body-worn cameras
Mixed findings

Very strong

Boot camps
Mixed findings

Very strong

Brief interventions for alcohol use disorders within criminal justice settings
Some reduction

Moderate

Car breathalyser lock
Overall reduction

Strong

Circles of support and accountability for sex offenders
Some reduction

Moderate

Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
Overall reduction

Very strong

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
Overall reduction

Strong

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for domestic violence
Some reduction

Strong

Crime prevention through environmental design
Some reduction

Low

Criminal sanctions to prevent domestic violence
Mixed findings

Low

Crisis intervention teams (CITs)
Mixed findings

Very strong

Day reporting centres
Mixed findings

Very strong

Drink driving media campaigns
Some reduction

Low

Drink-drive stops
Overall reduction

Very strong

Drink-driving courts
Some reduction

Strong

Drink-driving school-based programmes
Some reduction

Moderate

Drug courts
Overall reduction

Very strong

Drug substitution programmes
Mixed findings

Strong

Educational interventions to prevent relationship violence
Some reduction

Very strong

Electronic tagging for general offences
Mixed findings

Very strong

Electronic tagging for sex offences
Overall reduction

Very strong

Firearm laws
Overall reduction

Low

Focused deterrence strategies
Overall reduction

Very strong

Health visitors
Overall reduction

Moderate

Healthcare screening for domestic abuse
Overall reduction

Very strong

Increased police patrols to reduce drink-driving
Some reduction

Strong

Limiting alcohol sales
Mixed findings

Moderate

Lockouts for reducing alcohol-related violence
Mixed findings

Low

Mental health courts
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

Mentoring
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

Minimum legal drinking age laws
Mixed findings

Low

Moral reconation therapy (MRT)
Overall reduction

Strong

Motivational interviewing (MI)
Overall reduction

Strong

Multisystemic therapy
Some reduction

Very strong

Music making
No overall change

Low

Neighbourhood Watch
Overall reduction

Strong

Police-led pre-charge diversion models for young offenders
Overall reduction

Very strong

Prison education
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

Prison visits
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

Probation officer training
Overall reduction

Strong

Problem-oriented policing
Overall reduction

Very strong

Psychological treatment of adults convicted of sex offences against children
Mixed findings

Low

Red light cameras
Overall reduction

Very strong

Release on temporary licence
Some reduction

Low

Restorative justice conferencing
Overall reduction

Strong

Retail tagging to prevent shop theft
Mixed findings

Strong

Scared Straight programmes
Overall rise

Very strong

Second responder programmes to prevent domestic abuse
Some reduction

Strong

Social skills training for children
Overall reduction

Strong

Speed cameras
Overall reduction

Very strong

Street lighting
Overall reduction

Very strong

Teen courts
Mixed findings

Very strong

Therapeutic communities
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

Therapeutic foster care
Overall reduction

Strong

Trying youths as adults
Mixed findings

Strong

Victim-offender mediation
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

Wilderness challenge programmes
Overall reduction

Strong

Young offender aftercare
Mixed findings

Strong

Youth curfews
Mixed findings

Very strong

Zero-tolerance policing
No overall change

Very strong

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