Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website.

References – neighbourhood crime prevention

A list of all the sources of information in this evidence briefing

First published
Neighbourhood crime


Agnew-Pauley W, Lundrigan S and Specht D (2021). Operation Meteor – An evaluation of property marking schemes in Essex: Final report. [internet]. [Accessed 9 November 2021]

Armitage R. (2006). ‘Sustainability versus safety: Confusion, conflict and contradiction in designing out crime’. In: Farrell G, Bowers K, Johnson S and Townsley M, eds. ‘Imagination for crime prevention: Essays in honour of Ken Pease’. Crime Prevention Studies Volume 21. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press and Willan Publishing. pp 81–110.

Armitage R. (2013). ‘Crime prevention through housing design: Policy and practice’. Crime Prevention and Security Management Book Series. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Armitage R. (2018). Burglars’ take on crime prevention though environmental design (CPTED): Reconsidering the relevance from an offender perspective. Security Journal, 31, pp 285–304.

Armitage R, Monchuk L and Rogerson M. (2011). It looks good, but what is it like to live there? Exploring the impact of innovative housing design on crime. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 17, pp 29–54.

Armitage R and Tompson L. (in press). ‘The role of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in improving household security’. In: Gill M, ed. ‘Handbook of security’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Bennett T, Holloway K and Farrington DP. (2008). The effectiveness of Neighbourhood Watch: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 4(1), pp 1–46.

Bernasco W and Nieuwbeerta P. (2005). ‘How do residential burglars select target areas? A new approach to the analysis of criminal location choice’. British Journal of Criminology, 44, pp 296–315.

Bowers KJ and Johnson SD. (2003). ‘The role of publicity in crime prevention: findings from the Reducing Burglary Initiative’. Home Office Research Study 272. London: Home Office.

Brown B and Bentley D. (1993). Residential burglars judge risk: The role of territoriality. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), pp 51–61.

Brown BB and Altman I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3(3), pp 203–220.


Chainey S. (2012). JDI Briefs: Predictive mapping (predictive policing) [internet]. [Accessed 23 August 2021]

Clarke RV. (1989). Theoretical background to crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) and situational prevention. Paper presented at the Designing Out Crime: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Conference Sydney, Australia [internet]. [Accessed 4 November 2021]

Clarke RV. (1997). ‘Introduction’. In: Clarke RV. ‘Situational crime prevention: successful case studies’. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston. pp 1–3.

Clarke RV. (2005). Closing streets and alleys to reduce crime: should you go down this road? Response guide no. 2 [internet]. ASU Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed 13 December 2019]

Cohen LE and Felson M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4), pp 588–608

College of Policing. (n.d.). People and places - how resources can be targeted [internet]. [Accessed March 26. 2021]

Copes H and Cherbonneau M. (2006). ‘The Key to auto theft: Emerging methods of auto theft from the offender’s perspective’. British Journal of Criminology, 46(5), pp 917–934.

Cornish DB and Clarke RV. (2003). ‘Opportunities, precipitators, and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention’. Crime Prevention Studies, 16, pp 41–96.


Farrell G and others. (2011). The crime drop and the security hypothesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), pp 147–175.

Farrell G, Tseloni A and Tilley N. (2011). The effectiveness of vehicle security devices and their role in the crime drop. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 11(1), pp 21–35.

Farrington DP and others. (2007). ‘The effects of closed-circuit television on crime: meta-analysis of an English national quasi-experimental multisite evaluation’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3(1), pp 21–38.

Felson M and Clarke R. (1998). Opportunity makes the thief: Practical theory for crime prevention. Police Research Series Paper 98. London: Home Office.

Fielding M and Jones V. (2012). ‘Disrupting the optimal forager: predictive risk mapping and domestic burglary reduction in Trafford, Greater Manchester’. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 14(1), pp 30–41.

Flatley J. (2017a). Overview of robbery and theft from the person: England and Wales [internet]. Office for National Statistics. [Accessed December 18, 2020]

Flatley J. (2017b). Overview of vehicle-related theft: England and Wales [internet]. Office for National Statistics. [Accessed December 18, 2020]

Forrester D and others. (1990). ‘The Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project: Phase II’. Crime Prevention Unit, Paper 23. London: Home Office.


Grove L. (2011). Preventing repeat domestic burglary: a meta-evaluation of studies from Australia, the UK, and the United States. Victims & Offenders, 6(4), pp 370–385.


Home Office. (2013). Theft from the person: information pack for partners. London: Home Office.

Home Office. (2016). Crime outcomes in England and Wales: year ending March 2016 [internet]. [Accessed 1 March 2021]

Home Office. (2020). Factsheet: Police Funding Settlement 2020-21 [internet]. [Accessed 25 February 2021]

Home Office. (2021). Safer Streets Fund (2021-2022) Prospectus [internet]. [Accessed 24 March 2021]


Johnson SD and Bowers KJ. (2010). Permeability and burglary risk: are cul-de-sacs safer? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), pp 89–111.

Johnson SD and others. (2017). Evaluation of operation swordfish: a near-repeat target-hardening strategy. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 13(3), pp 505–525.

Johnson SD, Summers L and Pease K. (2006). Vehicle crime: Communicating spatial and temporal patterns. UCL Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science: London.


Langton S, Dixon, A and Farrell G. (2021). Six months in: pandemic crime trends in England and Wales. Crime Science, 10(6).

Laycock G. (1985). ‘Property marking: a deterrent to domestic burglary?’. Home Office Crime Prevention Unit Paper 3. London: Home Office.


Montoya L, Junger M and Ongena Y. (2014). The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary. Environment and Behavior, 48(4), pp 515–549.

Morgan N and others. (2016). Reducing criminal opportunity: vehicle security and vehicle crime. Home Office Research Report 87. London: Home Office.


Newman O. (1976). Design guidelines for creating defensible space. Washington: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

Nee C and Meenaghan A. (2006). Expert decision making in burglars. British Journal of Criminology, 46(5), pp 935–949.


Office for National Statistics. (2017). Overview of burglary and other household theft: England and Wales [internet]. [Accessed 18 December 2020]

Office for National Statistics. (2020a). Crime in England and Wales: Year ending September 2019 [internet]. [Accessed 1 March 2021]

Office for National Statistics. (2020b). Crime in England and Wales: Year ending March 2020 [internet]. [Accessed 1 March 2021]

Office for National Statistics. (2020c). Nature of crime: burglary [internet]. [Accessed 25 February 2020]

Office for National Statistics. (2020d). Nature of crime: robbery [internet]. [Accessed 18 December 2020]

Office for National Statistics. (2020e). Nature of crime: personal and other theft [internet]. [Accessed 18 December 2020]

Office for National Statistics. (2020f). Nature of crime: vehicle-related theft [internet]. [Accessed 20 August 2021]


Quinn A. (2019). Vehicle crime, CPTED, and offending under the influence: A qualitative investigation of offender perceptions. Social Sciences, 8(3), p 88.


Raphael I. (2015). ‘Cooling hot property? An assessment of the impact of property marking on residential burglary crime reduction, crime displacement or diffusion of benefits and public confidence’. DCrimJ thesis, University of Portsmouth. [Unpublished]


Sidebottom A. (2012). JDiBrief – crime: bicycle theft. London: UCL Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science.

Sidebottom A and others. (2018). Gating alleys to reduce crime: a meta-analysis and realist synthesis. Justice Quarterly, 35(1), pp 55–86.

Sidebottom A, Thorpe A and Johnson SD. (2009). Using targeted publicity to reduce opportunities for bicycle theft: a demonstration and replication. European Journal of Criminology, 6(3), pp 267–286.

Smith DG, Gregson M and Morgan J. (2003). ‘Between the lines: an evaluation of the Secured Car Park Award Scheme’. Home Office Research Study 266. London: Home Office.

Smith J. (2003). ‘The nature of personal robbery’. Home Office Research Study 254. London: Home Office.


Tompson L. (n.d.). JDi Brief - Street Robbery: Summary [internet]. [Accessed 18 December 2020]

Townsley M, Homel R and Chaseling J. (2003). Infectious burglaries. A test of the near repeat hypothesis. British Journal of Criminology, 43(3), pp 615–633.

Tseloni A. (2006). Multilevel modelling of the number of property crimes: household and area effects. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 169(2), pp 205–233.

Tseloni A and others (2017a). ‘The effectiveness of burglary security devices’. Security Journal, 30(2), pp 646–664.

Tseloni A and others. (2017b). Domestic burglary drop and the security hypothesis. Crime Science, 6(3).

Tseloni A, Thompson R and Tilley N. (2018). ‘Reducing burglary’. Cham: Springer.


Van Limbergen K, Walgrave S and Dekegel I. (1996). ‘Bicycle repair shops. Promising practices: Crime prevention in Belgium: 10 examples’. Brussels: The Permanent Secretariat for Prevention Policy, The Ministry of the Interior.

Weems JR. (2014). ‘Testing PCSO cocooning of near repeat burglary locations’. MSt thesis, University of Cambridge. [Unpublished]

Welsh BC and Farrington DP. (2008). Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 4(1), pp 1–51.

Welsh BC and Farrington DP. (2009). Public area CCTV and crime prevention: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Justice Quarterly, 26(4), pp 716–745.

Wortley R, Kane R and Grant F. (1998). ‘Public awareness and auto-theft prevention: Getting it right for the wrong reason’. Security Journal, 10, pp 59–64.

Was this page useful?

Do not provide personal information such as your name or email address in the feedback form. Read our privacy policy for more information on how we use this data

What is the reason for your answer?
I couldn't find what I was looking for
The information wasn't relevant to me
The information is too complicated