A list of resources referenced in the knife crime problem solving guide and how to cite the guide.
Allen G and Harding M. (2021). 'Knife crime in England and Wales'. Briefing paper no. CP4304. London: House of Commons Library.
Anderson L, FitzGerald M and Luck L. (2010). ‘An integrative literature review of interventions to reduce violence against emergency department nurses’. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(17-18), pp 2520–2530.
Bailey L, Harinam V and Ariel B. (2020). 'Victims, offenders and victim-offender overlaps of knife crime: A social network analysis approach using police records'. PLoS ONE, 15(12), e0242621. Barthe E. (2006). Crime prevention publicity campaigns. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
Bleetman A, Perry CH, Crawford R and Swann IJ. (1997). ‘Effect of Strathclyde Police initiative “Operation Blade” on accident and emergency attendances due to assault’. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, 14(3), pp 153–156.
Blumstein, A. and Cork, D.L. (1996). 'Linking gun availability to youth gun violence. Law and Contemporary Problems', 59(1), 5-24.
Bolger PC and Walters GD. (2019). ‘The relationship between police procedural justice, police legitimacy, and people’s willingness to cooperate with law enforcement: A meta-analysis’. Journal of Criminal Justice, 60, pp 93–99.
Borrion H. (2013). 'Quality assurance in crime scripting'. Crime Science, 2(1), pp 1–12.
Braga AA. (2016). ‘The continued importance of measuring potentially harmful impacts of crime prevention programs: The Academy of Experimental Criminology 2014 Joan McCord lecture’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12(1), pp 1–20.
Braga AA and Kennedy DM. (2021). ‘A framework for addressing violence and serious crime: Focused deterrence, legitimacy, and prevention’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Braga A, Papachristos A and Hureau D. (2012). 'Hot spots policing effects on crime'. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 8(1), pp 1–96.
Braga AA, Turchan BS, Papachristos AV and Hureau DM. (2019). ‘Hot spots policing and crime reduction: An update of an ongoing systematic review and meta-analysis’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 15(3), pp 289–311.
Branas CC, South E, Kondo MC, Hohl BC, Bourgois P, Wiebe DJ and MacDonald JM. (2018). 'Citywide cluster randomized trial to restore blighted vacant land and its effects on violence, crime, and fear'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(12), pp 2946–2951.
Brennan IR. (2016). ‘When is violence not a crime? Factors associated with victims’ labelling of violence as a crime’. International Review of Victimology, 22(1), pp 3–23.
Brennan IR. (2017). ‘High stakes: The role of weapons in offender decision-making’. In: Bernasco W, Elffers H and van Gelder J-L, eds. ‘Oxford handbook of offender decision-making’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brennan IR. (2018). ‘Weapon-carrying and the reduction of violent harm’. British Journal of Criminology, 59(3), pp 571–593.
Brennan IR. (2019). 'Victims of serious violence in England and Wales, 2011-2017' [internet]. College of Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Brennan IR. (2020). 'Violence, worry and trust in the emergence of weapon-carrying' [internet]. SocArXiv. [Accessed July 2021]
Bullock K, Erol R and Tilley N. (2006). ‘Problem-oriented policing and partnership’. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Chong VE, Smith R, Garcia A, Lee WS, Ashley L, Marks A and Victorino G P. (2015). ‘Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: A costeffectiveness analysis’. The American Journal of Surgery, 209(4), pp 597–603.
Clarke RV and Eck J. (2003). 'Become a problem-solving crime analyst: In 55 small steps'. Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science. London: University College London.
College of Policing (2015). 'Authorised Professional Practice: Stop and search' [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
College of Policing. (2019). 'Neighbourhood policing guidelines: Supporting material for frontline officers, staff and volunteers' [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
College of Policing. (2021). Crime Reduction Toolkit [internet]. [Accessed July 2021] Crown Prosecution Service. (2020). Offensive weapons, knife crime practical guidance [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
Davies T, Grossmith L and Dawson P. (2016). ‘Group violence intervention London: An evaluation of the Shield Pilot’. London: The Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime.
Del Toro J, Lloyd T, Buchanan KS, Robins SJ, Bencharit LZ, Smiedt MG, Reddy KS, Pouget ER, Kerrison EM and Goff PA. (2019). 'The criminogenic and psychological effects of police stops on adolescent black and Latino boys'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(17), pp 8261–8268.
Dijkstra JK, Lindenberg S, Veenstra R, Steglich C, Isaacs J, Card NA and Hodges EVE. (2010). ‘Influence and Selection processes in weaponcarrying during adolescence: The roles of status, aggression and vulnerability’. Criminology, 48(1), pp 187–220.
Eck J. (2003). ‘Police problems: The complexity of problem theory, research and evaluation’. Crime Prevention Studies, 15, pp 79–113.
Eck J and Spelman W. (1987). 'Problem solving: Problem-oriented policing in Newport News'. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Farrell G. (2015). ‘Crime concentration theory’. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 17(4), pp 233–248.
General Medical Council. (2019). 'Confidentiality: Reporting gunshot and knife wounds' [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
Giacomantonio C, Sutherland A, Boyle A, Shepherd J, Kruithof K and Davies M. (2014). Injury surveillance: Using A&E data for crime reduction: Technical report [internet]. College of Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Goldstein H. (1979). ‘Improving policing: A problem-oriented approach’. Crime & Delinquency, 25(2), pp 236–258.
Goldstein H and Scott M. (2011). 'Shifting and sharing responsibility for public safety problems'. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
Gonzalez JMR, Jetelina KK and Jennings WG. (2016). ‘Structural school safety measures, SROs, and school-related delinquent behavior and perceptions of safety: A state-of-the-art review’. Policing: An International Journal, 39(3), pp 438–454.
Goodall C, Jameson J and Lowe DJ. (2020). 'Navigator: A tale of two cities' [internet]. Navigators Scotland. [Accessed July 2021]
Grove LE, Farrell G, Farrington DP and Johnson SD. (2012). ‘Preventing repeat victimization: A systematic review’. Stockholm: The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention.
Heeks M, Reed S, Tafsiri M and Prince S. (2018). 'The economic and social costs of crime, Second edition'. Research report 99. London: Home Office.
Hemenway D, Vriniotis M, Johnson RM, Miller M and Azrael D. (2011). 'Gun carrying by high school students in Boston, MA: Does overestimation of peer gun carrying matter?'. Journal of Adolescence, 34, pp 997–1003.
Hinkle JC, Weisburd D, Telep CW and Petersen K. (2020). 'Problemoriented policing for reducing crime and disorder: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis'. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 16(2), e1089.
Johnson SD, Tilley N and Bowers KJ. (2015). 'Introducing EMMIE: an evidence rating scale to encourage mixed-method crime prevention synthesis reviews'. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(3), pp 459–473.
Kuhn EM, Nie CL, O’Brien ME, Withers RL, Wintemute GJ and Hargarten SW. (2002). 'Missing the target: a comparison of buyback and fatality related guns'. Injury Prevention, 8(2), pp 143–146.
Lynch-Huggins S, Rantanen K, Wishart R, Espasa J and Kelley N. (2021). 'Evaluation of DIVERT: Full technical report' [internet]. College of Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Makarios MD and Pratt TC. (2012). ‘The effectiveness of policies and programs that attempt to reduce firearm violence: A meta-analysis’. Crime & Delinquency, 58(2), pp 222–244.
Massey J, Sherman LW and Coupe T. (2019). 'Forecasting knife crime homicide risk from prior knife assaults in 4835 local areas of London', 2016–2018. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing, 3, pp 1–20.
McNeill A and Wheller L. (2019). 'Knife crime: Evidence briefing' [internet]. College of Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Metropolitan Police Service. (2006). 'Knife amnesty impact on knifeenabled offences'. London: Metropolitan Police Service.
NHS. (2021). Statistical process control tool [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
NHS Digital. (2019). ISB1594: 'Information sharing to tackle violence minimum dataset' [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
Office for National Statistics (2021). 'Police recorded offences involving knives or sharp instruments: methodology changes' [internet]. [Accessed July 2021]
Posch K and Jackson J. (2021). 'Police in the classroom: Evaluation of a three-wave cluster-randomised trial'. London: LSE.
PSHE Association and National Police Chiefs’ Council. (2019). 'Police in the Classroom: A handbook for the police and PSHE teachers' [internet]. [Accessed 16 June 2021]
Quinton P, Tiratelli M and Bradford B. (2017). 'Does more stop and search mean less crime? Analysis of Metropolitan Police Service panel data, 2004–14'. London: College of Policing.
Ramshaw N, Charleton B and Dawson P. (2018). 'Youth Voice Survey 2018' [internet]. The Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime. [Accessed July 2021]
Ratcliffe JH. (2018). ‘Reducing crime: A companion for police leaders’. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ratcliffe JH, Taniguchi T, Groff ER and Wood JD. (2011). ‘The Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment: A randomized controlled trial of police patrol effectiveness in violent crime hotspots’. Criminology, 49(3), pp 795–831.
Raymond B. (2010). 'Assigning police officers to schools' [internet]. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Read T and Tilley N. (2000). 'Not rocket science? Problem-solving and crime reduction'. Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 6. London: Home Office.
Sampson R, Eck JE and Dunham J. (2010). ‘Super controllers and crime prevention: A routine activity explanation of crime prevention success and failure’. Security Journal, 23(1), pp 37–51.
Scott M. (2000). 'Problem-oriented policing: Reflections on the first 20 years'. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
Scott MS. (2017). 'Focused deterrence of high-risk individuals' [internet]. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Scott M and Clarke R. (2020). ‘Problem-oriented policing: Successful case studies’. New York, NY: Routledge.
Sidebottom A, Bullock K, Armitage R, Ashby M, Clemmow C, Kirby S, Laycock G and Tilley N. (2020). ‘Problem-oriented policing in England and Wales 2019’. Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science. London: University College London.
Smith MJ, Clarke RV and Pease K. (2002). 'Anticipatory benefits in crime prevention'. Crime Prevention Studies, 13, pp 71–88.
Spano R, Pridemore WA and Bolland J. (2012). ‘Specifying the role of exposure to violence and violent behavior on initiation of gun carrying: a longitudinal test of three models of youth gun carrying’. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(1), pp 158–176.
Sutherland A, Brunton-Smith I, Hutt O and Bradford B. (2020). 'Violent crime in London: Trends, trajectories and neighbourhoods' [internet]. College of Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Sutherland A, Strang L, Stepanek M, Giacomantonio C, Boyle A and Strang H. (2021). 'Tracking violent crime with ambulance data: How much crime goes uncounted?'. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing, 5, pp 20–39.
Telep CW and Hibdon J. (2019). 'Understanding and responding to crime and disorder hotspots' [internet]. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Tilley N. (2016). 'Analyzing and responding to repeat offending' [internet]. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Tompson L, Belur J, Thornton A, Bowers KJ, Johnson SD, Sidebottom A, Tilley N and Laycock G. (2020). 'How strong is the evidence-base for crime reduction professionals?'. Justice Evaluation Journal, 4(1), pp 68–97.
Weisburd D, Wooditch A, Weisburd S and Yang S-M. (2015). ‘Do stop, question, and frisk practices deter crime? Evidence at microunits of space and time’. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(1), pp 31–56.
Weisel DL. (2005). 'Analyzing repeat victimization' [internet]. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. [Accessed July 2021]
Welsh BC and Rocque M. (2014). ‘When crime prevention harms: A review of systematic reviews’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(3), pp 245–266.
Williams JD, Currie D, Linden W and Donnelly PD. (2014). ‘Addressing gang-related violence in Glasgow: A preliminary pragmatic quasi-experimental evaluation of the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV)’. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), pp 686–691.
Wilson DB, Brennan IR and Olaghere A. (2018). ‘Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior: A systematic review’. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), pp 1–88.
- Aiden Sidebottom (University College London)
- Iain Brennan (University of Hull)
- Iain Agar (Essex Police)
- Matt Ashby (University College London)
- Karen Bullock (University of Surrey)
- Gavin Hales (GM Hales Research and Consultancy)
- Nick Tilley (University College London)
How this guide was produced
This guide was commissioned by the College of Policing and made possible through a grant from the Home Office Science, Technology and Research (STAR) Fund.
The material reported in this guide draws on the findings of interviews and focus groups with police officers, staff and analysts from 24 police services and Violence Reduction Units in England and Wales, documentary analysis, crime data provided by Metropolitan Police Service and an online survey with members of the public, as well the research and experience of the authors.
Ethical approval for the research was provided by University of Hull (REF: 2021STAFF08).
How to cite this guide
Sidebottom A, Brennan I, Agar I, Ashby M, Bullock K, Hales G and Tilley N. (2021). ‘Knife crime: A problem solving guide’. College of Policing.
The authors thank all those who took part in interviews, focus groups and the survey. The guide benefited greatly from the input of Levin Wheller, Abigail McNeill, Hayley Guest, Lewis Basford, Nerys Thomas, Mike Scott, Stuart Kirby, Owen Miller and Anthony Braga.