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Evidence base: references and footnotes

Authorised Professional Practice

This page is from APP, the official source of professional practice for policing.

First published
Written by College of Policing
Stop and search
6 mins read

The advice in this authorised professional practice is developed from the applicable law (in particular Code A), the Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme (BUSSS), Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services (HMICFRS) and Equality and Human Rights Commission reports on the use of stop and search, as well as police professional expertise. It also draws on findings from the following research studies.


Bowling B and Phillips C. (2007). ‘Disproportionate and discriminatory: Reviewing the evidence on police stop and search’. Modern Law Review, 70(6), pp 936–961.

Bradford B. (2015). ‘Unintended consequences’. In: Delsol R and Shiner M, eds. ‘Stop and search: The anatomy of a police power’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chainey S and Macdonald I. (2012). ‘Stop and search, the use of intelligence and geographic targeting: Findings from case study research’. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

Delsol R. (2015). ‘Effectiveness’. In: Delsol R and Shiner M, eds. ‘Stop and search: The anatomy of a police power’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eastwood N, Shiner M and Bear D. (2013). The numbers in black and white: ethnic disparities in the policing and prosecution of drug offences in England and Wales. London: Release.

Glaser J. (2014). ‘Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hine J. (2015, unpublished). Stop and search: Exploring disproportionality.  Leicester: Leicestershire Police and De Montfort University.

Jackson J, Bradford B, Hough M, Myhill A, Quinton P and Tyler T. (2013). ‘Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions’. British Journal of Criminology, 52(6), pp 1051–1071.

Jackson J, Bradford B, Stanko B and Hohl K. (2013). ‘Just authority? Trust in the police in England and Wales’. London: Routledge.

MacDonald J, Fagan J and Geller A. (2016). The effects of local police surges on crime and arrests in New York City. PLoS ONE, 11(6), pp 1–13.

Mazerolle L, Bennett S, Antrobus E and Eggins E. (2012). ‘Procedural justice, routine encounters and citizen perceptions of police: Main findings from the Queensland Community Engagement Trial (QCET)’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8(4), pp 343–367.

Mazerolle L, Bennett S, Davis J, Sargeant E and Manning M. (2013). Procedural justice and police legitimacy: A systematic review of the research evidence. Oslo: Campbell Systematic Reviews.

McCandless R, Feist A, Allan J and Morgan N. (2016). Do initiatives involving substantial increases in stop and search reduce crime? Assessing the impact of Operation BLUNT 2. London: Home Office.

Miller J, Bland N and Quinton P. (2000). The impact of stops and searches on crime and the community. London: Home Office.

Miller J and D’Souza A. (2015). ‘The indirect effects of police searches on community attitudes to the police: Resentment or reassurance?’. British Journal of Criminology, 56, pp 456–478.

MVA and Miller J. (2000). ‘Profiling populations available for stops and searches’. London: Home Office.

Myhill A and Quinton P. (2010). It’s a fair cop? Police legitimacy, public cooperation, and crime reduction. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. (2015). Implicit Bias. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Quinton P. (2011a). ‘The formation of suspicions: Police stop and search practices in England and Wales’. Policing and Society, 21(4), pp 357–368.

Quinton P. (2011b). ‘The impact of information about crime and policing on public perceptions: The results of a randomised controlled trial’. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

Quinton P, Bland N and Miller J. (2000). Police stops, decision-making and practice. London: Home Office.

Quinton P, McNeill A and Buckland A. (2018). Searching for cannabis – are grounds for search associated with outcomes? London: College of Policing.

Quinton P, Tiratelli M and Bradford B. (2016). ‘The impact of stop and search on crime in London’. Ryton-on-Dunsmore: College of Policing.

Rosenfeld R and Fornango R. (2014). ‘The impact of police stops on precinct robbery and burglary rates in New York City, 2003–2010’. Justice Quarterly, 31(1), pp 96–122.

Smith D, Purtell R and Guerrero S. (2012). ‘Is stop, question and frisk an effective tool in the fight against crime?’. Paper presented at the Annual Research Conference of the Association of Public Policy and Management: Baltimore, MD, November.

Stone V and Pettigew N. (2000). The views of the public on stops and searches. London: Home Office.

Taylor B, Koper C and Woods D. (2011). ‘A randomized controlled trial of different policing strategies at hot spots of violent crime’. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(2), pp 149–181.

Tyler T. (2006). ‘Why people obey the law’. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Waddington P, Stenson K and Don D. (2004). ‘In proportion: Race, and police stop and search’. British Journal of Criminology, 44(4), pp 1–26.

Weisburd D, Wooditch A, Weisburd S and Yang S-M. (2016). ‘Do stop, question, and frisk practices deter crime? Evidence at microunits of space and time’. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(1), pp 31–56.

Wheller L, Quinton P, Fildes A and Mills A. (2013). The Greater Manchester Police procedural justice training experiment: The impact of communication skills training on officers and victims of crime. Ryton-on-Dunsmore: College of Policing.


  1. Stone and Pettigrew (2000); Jackson and others (2013); Bowling and Phillips (2002).
  2. Myhill and Quinton (2011).
  3. Jackson and others (2013); Myhill and Quinton (2011); Mazerolle and others (2013); Jackson and others (2012).
  4. Giacomantonio and others (2016); Wheller and others (2013).
  5. Jackson and others (2012); Myhill and Quinton (2011); Mazerolle and others (2013).
  6. Jackson and others (2013), Miller and D’Sousa (2015).
  7. Stone and Pettigrew (2000).
  8. Miller and others (2000).
  9. Delsol (2015).
  10. See Quinton and others (2016) for summary.
  11. Quinton and others (2016).
  12. Miller and others (2000).
  13. Stone and Pettigrew (2000); Quinton (2011).
  14. Jackson and others (2012); Bradford (2015).


  1. Jackson and others (2012), Stone and Pettigrew (2000), Bowling and Phillips (2002).
  2. Jackson and others (2012); Bradford (2015).
  3. Jackson and others (2012); Bowling and Phillips (2002); Stone and Pettigrew (2000).
  4. Stone and Pettigrew (2000).
  5. Miller and others (2000).
  6. Quinton and others (2000); Stone and Pettigrew (2000).
  7. Quinton and others (2000); Quinton (2000).
  8. Miller and others (2000).
  9. Quinton (2015).
  10. Quinton (2011).
  11. Glaser (2014).
  12. Quinton (2011); Quinton (2015); Glaser (2014); National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice (2015).
  13. Waddington and others (2004); MVA and Miller (2000); Chainey and Macdonald (2004).
  1. Jackson and others (2013).
  1. Eastwood and others (2013).
  2. Quinton and others (2018).
  3. Quinton and others (2018).
  4. Mazerolle and others (2012).


  1. Jackson and others (2012).
  2. Stone and Pettigrew (2000).
  3. Myhill and Quinton (2011); Jackson and others (2012); Mazerolle and others (2012); Tyler (2006).
  4. Quinton and others (2000); Jackson and others (2012).
  5. Jackson and others (2013); Myhill and Quinton (2011); Mazerolle and others (2012); Tyler (2006).
  6. Jackson and others (2012).
  7. Giacomantonio and others (2016).
  8. Myhill and Quinton (2011).
  9. Jackson and others (2013); Myhill and Quinton (2011); Mazerolle (2012); Tyler (2006).
  10. Giacomantonio and others (2016).
  11. Jackson and others (2013); Myhill and Quinton (2011); Mazerolle (2012); Tyler (2006).
  12. Giacomantonio and others (2016).


  1. MVA and Miller (2000); Waddington and others (2004); Quinton (2015).
  2. Quinton (2011b).
  3. Quinton (2015); Bowling and Phillips (2007).
  4. Delsol (2015); Quinton and others (2016).
  5. Quinton and others (2016); McCandless and others (2016); MacDonald and others (2016); Rosenfeld and Fornango (2014); Smith and others (2012); Wesiburd and others (2016).
  6. Quinton and others (2016); Tayler (2011); Groff and others (2015).
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