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References from the knife crime evidence briefing.

First published
Written by Abigail McNeill and Levin Wheller
Knife crime evidence briefing
  • Barry MM, Clarke AM, Morreale SE and Field CA. (2018). A Review of the Evidence on the Effects of Community-based Programs on Young People’s Social and Emotional Skills Development. Adolescent Research Review, 3(1), pp.13-27.
  • Bellis MA, Hughes K, Perkins C and Bennett A. (2012). Protecting people, Promoting health: A public health approach to violence prevention for England. Liverpool: Centre for Public Health. Online access: uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/216977/Violence-prevention.pdf.
  • Birmingham Race Action Partnership (BRAP) (2012). STUCK: Current approaches to the design and delivery of interventions to address gang-related violence in Birmingham, A Research Report.
  • Boydstun J. (1975). San Diego field interrogation: Final report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
  • Bradford B. (2011). Police Numbers and Crime Rates – A Rapid Evidence Review. London: HMIC.
  • Bradford B. (2015). The unintended consequences of stop and search, in: Delsol, R. and Shiner, M. (eds). Stop and search: The anatomy of a police power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Bradford B. (2017). Stop and search and police legitimacy. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Braga AA, Kennedy DM, Waring EJ and Piehl AM. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(3), pp.195-225.
  • Braga AA and Weisburd D. (2012). The Effects of ‘Pulling Levers’ Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:6. Online access: https://campbellcollaboration. org/library/pulling-levers-focused-deterrence-strategies-effectson-crime.html.
  • Braga AA, Weisburd D and Turchan B. (2018). Focused deterrence strategies and crime control: An updated systematic review and meta‐analysis of the empirical evidence. Criminology & Public Policy, 17(1), pp.205-250.
  • Brennan IR. (2017). High Stakes: Offender decisions about weapon carrying and weapon use , in: Bernasco, W., Elffers, H., van Gelder, J-L, (eds). Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making. Oxford: OUP.
  • Brennan IR. (2018). Weapon-Carrying and the Reduction of Violent Harm. British Journal of Criminology. Online access:
  • Davies T, Grossmith L and Dawson P. (2016). Group Violence Intervention London: An Evaluation of the Shield Pilot. MOPAC Evidence and Insight. Online access: sites/default/files/gvi_london_evaluation270117.pdf
  • Dobash R, Emerson Dobash R, Cavanagh K, Duncan S and Medina-Ariza J. (2007). Onset of offending and life course among men convicted of murder. Homicide Studies, 11 (4), pp.243-271.
  • Eades C, Grimshaw R, Silvestri A and Solomon E. (2007). ‘Knife Crime’: A Review of Evidence and Policy. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. Online access: https://www.
  • FitzGerald M. (1999). Searches in London: Under s1 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act. London: MPS.
  • Foster R. (2013). Knife Crime Interventions: ‘What Works?’. Glasgow: SCCJR. Online access: Crime_Interventions.pdf.
  • Hales G, Lewis C and Silverstone D. (2006). Gun Crime: The Market in and Use of Illegal Firearms. London: Home Office.
  • Halliday J, French C and Goodwin C. (2001). Making Punishments Work: Report of a Review of the Sentencing Framework for England and Wales. London: Home Office.
  • Home Office (2009). Tackling Youth Knife Crime: Practical Advice for Police. London: Home Office. Online access: http://www.
  • Home Office. (2018). Serious Violence Strategy. London: Home Office.
  • Home Office. (2018b). Police powers and procedures, England and Wales, year ending 31 March 2018. London: Home Office.
  • Jackson J, Bradford B, Stanko B and Hohl K. (2012). Just authority?: Trust in the police in England and Wales. Cullompton: Willan.
  • Kinsella, Brooke. (2010). Tackling Knife Crime Together – A Review Of Local Anti-Knife Crime Projects. London: Home Office.
  • Kirchmaier T and Villa Llera C. (2018). Murders in London. Centre for Economic Performance, LSE: London.
  • Lemos G. (2004). Fear and fashion. The Use of Knives and Other Weapons by Young People, Bridge House Trust.
  • Linden W. (2018). Last year, 39 UK youths were fatally stabbed. None were in Scotland. Why? article/last-year-80-londoners-killed-knives-glasgow-nobody/
  • Livingstone N, Macdonald G and Carr N. (2013). Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21). Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 2013: 2. Online access: doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008898.pub2/epdf/full
  • Marsh K, Fox C and Sarmah R. (2009). Is custody an effective sentencing option for the UK? Evidence from a meta-analysis of existing studies. Probation Journal, 56(2), pp.129-151.
  • MacDonald J, Fagan J and Geller A. (2016). The effects of local police surges on crime and arrests in New York City. PLoS ONE, 11(6), pp.1–13.
  • McCandless R, Feist A, Allan J and Morgan N. (2016). Do Initiatives Involving Substantial Increases in Stop and Search Reduce Crime? Assessing the Impact of Operation BLUNT 2. London: Home Office.
  • McVie S. (2010). Gang Membership and Knife Carrying: Findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research.
  • Metropolitan Police Service (2006). Knife Amnesty Impact on Knife-Enabled Offences, London: MPS. Online access: http://news.
  • Ministry of Justice. (2018a). Examining the Educational Background of Young Knife Possession Offenders. London: Minstry of Justice. Online access: https://assets.publishing.service. file/716039/examining-the-educational-background-of-youngknife-possession-offenders.pdf.
  • Ministry of Justice. (2018b). Knife and Offensive Weapon Sentencing Statistics, England and Wales – year ending March 2018. London: Minstry of Justice. Online access: https://assets.publishing.service. file/716277/knife-offensive-weapon-sentencing-jan-mar-2018.pdf.
  • MOPAC (2017). The London Knife Crime Strategy. London: MOPAC. Online access: files/mopac_knife_crime_strategy_june_2017.pdf.
  • MOPAC, Ministry of Justice, London Councils (2018). Working Towards Justice Devolution to London: Memorandum of Understanding between the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime, the Ministry of Justice and London Councils. Online access: mou_final.pdf.
  • Office for National Statistics (2018). Crime and Justice Bulletins, Crime in England and Wales: year ending March 2018. London: ONS. Online access: peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/bulletins/ crimeinenglandandwales/yearendingmarch2018.
  • Petrosino A, Turpin-Petrosino C, Hollis-Peel ME and Lavenberg J.G. (2013). ‘Scared Straight’ and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2013:5. Online access: http://www. Scared_Straight_Update.pdf.
  • Ratcliffe JH, Taniguchi T, Groff ER and Wood J. (2011). The Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment: A randomized controlled trial of police patrol effectiveness in violent crime hotspots. Criminology, 49(3), pp.795-831.
  • Ross A, Duckworth K, Smith DJ, Wyness G and Schoon I. (2011). Prevention and Reduction: A review of strategies for intervening early to prevent or reduce youth crime and anti-social behaviour. London: Department for Education. Online access: system/uploads/attachment_data/file/182548/DFE-RR111.pdf.
  • Scottish Government (2018). Policy: Crime Prevention and Reduction: Violence including knife crime. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Online access: policies/reducing-crime/reducing-violence.
  • Sentencing Council. (2018). Bladed Articles and Offensive Weapons. London: Sentencing Council. Online access: https://
  • Silvestri A, Oldfield M, Squires P and Grimshaw R. (2009). Young people, knives and guns: a comprehensive review, analysis and critique of gun and knife crime strategies. London: Centre for Criminal Justice Studies. Online access: https://www. knives%20and%20guns.pdf.
  • Silvestri A. (2009). Young people, ‘knife’ and ‘gun crime’: policy in an evidence vacuum? Arianna Silvestri examines the evidence available to support interventions in this high-profile area. Criminal Justice Matters, 76(1), pp.48-49.
  • Strang H, Sherman LW, Mayo-Wilson E, Woods D and Ariel B. (2013). Restorative Justice Conferencing (RJC) Using Face-to-Face Meetings of Offenders and Victims: Effects on Offender Recidivism and Victim Satisfaction. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2013:12. Online access: library/restorative-justice-conferencing-recidivism-victimsatisfaction.html.
  • Tiratelli M, Quinton P and Bradford B. (2018). Does stop and search deter crime? Evidence from ten years of London-wide data. The British Journal of Criminology, 58(5), pp.1,212–1,231.
  • Violence Reduction Unit. (undated). Glasgow’s Community Initiative to Reduce Violence. Glasgow: Strathclyde Police. Online access: year_report.pdf.
  • Weisburd D, Wooditch A, Weisburd S and Yang S-M. (2015). Do stop, question, and frisk practices deter crime? Evidence at microunits of space and time. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(1): pp.31–56.
  • Williams DJ, Currie D, Linden W and Donnelly PD. (2014). Addressing gang-related violence in Glasgow: A preliminary pragmatic quasi-experimental evaluation of the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, (6), pp.686-691.
  • Youth Justice Board and Ministry of Justice. (2018). Youth Justice Statistics 2016/17: England and Wales. London: Ministry of Justice. Online access: uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/676072/youth_justice_statistics_2016-17.pdf.
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